Bottomfish of the Hawaiian Islands
- Thrive in waters from 90 to deeper than 600 feet.
- Have been caught around the Hawaiian Islands for subsistence since ancient times and commercially for at least 90 years.
- Commercially fished in both the Main Hawaiian Islands and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
- Some commercially important species include opakapaka (pink snapper), onaga (long tail red snapper), ehu (short tail red snapper), uku (jobfish), and hapuʻupuʻu (sea bass).
- A decrease in commercial landings raised concerns about the status of the Hawaiian bottomfish fishery in the late 1980s.
- Recent fishery management plans have placed regulations and restrictions on the fishery to replenish bottomfish stocks.
Web Site ResourcesBottomfish Research and Stock Assessment
The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Bottomfish website, providing information and key documents about the Center's bottomfish research. Western Pacific Fisheries Management Council's (WPFMC) Bottomfish Program
Gateway to WPFMC documents related the Bottomfish Fisheries in the Western Pacific, including the Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fishery Management Plan and Amendments, Annual Reports, Bottomfish News, and a Bottomfish Document Library. Hawaii DAR Bottomfish Projects
Information on Hawaii's Bottomfish and Bottomfish Fishery from the Hawaii DLNR's Department of Aquatic Resources. Includes a summary of the Hawaii Administrative Rule relating to the fishery. NURP Research – In the Spotlight: Hawaiian bottomfish play hide and seek in ancient reefs
Highlights the research on Hawaiian bottomfish habitat done by NOAA's Undersea Research Program. Hawaii Seafood Buyers Guide: Bottomfish
Provides consumer information on four major commercial species of bottomfish: hapuʻupuʻu, onaga, opakapaka, and uku.
Literature by Topic
General/MiscellaneousHistory of the Hawaii bottomfish fishery
Spalding S. Hawaii Fishing News, 32(1) (Feb. 2006): 16-18. Deep-bottom fishing techniques for the Pacific Islands: a manual for fishermen
Preston G, et al. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 1999.
PIFSC Library, SH455.6 .D44 1999 Biology and management of deepwater snappers of the Hawaiian archipelago
Haight WR, Kobayashi DR, Kawamoto KE. Marine Fisheries Review, 55(2) (1993): 20-27. Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management
Polovina JJ. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987.
PIFSC Library, QL638 .L9 T76 A multispecies analysis of the commercial deep-sea handline fishery in Hawaii
Ralston S, Polovina JJ. Fishery Bulletin, 80(3) (1982): 435-448. A study of the Hawaiian deepsea handline fishery with special reference to the population dynamics of opakapaka, Pristipomoides filamentosus (Pisces: Lutjanidae)
Ralston S. Thesis (Ph. D.), University of Washington, 1981.
PIFSC Library, SH351 .G78 R35 1981
Fishery ManagementDraft Supplemental environmental impact statement: bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries of the Western Pacific region
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 2006.
Information and management alternatives regarding overfishing in the Hawaii bottomfish fishery
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 2006.
Amendment to the bottomfish and seamount groundfish Fishery Management Plan for the Hawaii Archipelago
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 2006.
Final environmental impact statement: bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries of the Western Pacific region
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 2005.
PIFSC Library, SH214.9 .F56 2005 Recommended overfishing definitions and control rules for the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council's bottomfish and seamount groundfish fishery management plan
Moffitt RB, Kobayashi DR. 2000. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-00-03
[ pdf ] (852 K) Scoping hearings for bottomfish, seamount groundfish and crustacean fisheries environmental impact statements
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 1999. Bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries of the Western Pacific region ... annual report
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 1996-. Federal state cooperation in managing deepwater bottom fish in Hawaii
Simonds K. South Pacific Commission workshop on the management of South Pacific inshore fisheries, Noumea (New Caledonia) 26 Jun-7 Jul 1995. 12:299-309. Status of Hawaii's bottom fish fishery in 1988
Kawamoto KE, Pooley SG. 1990. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-90-01.
[ pdf ] (1.54 MB) A measure of overfishing and its application on Hawaiian bottomfishes
Somerton DA, Kobayashi DR. 1990. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-90-10.
[ pdf ] (1.61 MB) Status of Hawaii's bottom fish fishery in 1987
Pooley SG, Kawamoto KE. 1988. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-88-10.
[ pdf ] (1.30 MB) Assessment and management of deepwater bottom fishes in Hawaii and the Marianas
Polovina JJ, in Tropical snappers and groupers : biology and fisheries management, Polovina JJ, Ralston S (eds.), (1987): 505-532.
PIFSC Library, QL638 .L9 T76 Combined fishery management plan, environmental assessment and regulatory impact review for the bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries of the Western Pacific region
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 1986. Annual and average monthly trends in the catch of bottom fish species in Hawaii 1949-80
Anonymous. 1984. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-84-16.
[ pdf ] (2.94 MB) Influence of hook size in the Hawaiian deep-sea handline fishery
Ralston S. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 39(9) (1982): 1297-1302.
Fishery Management -- Northwestern Hawaiian IslandsCouncil revisits recommendation to grandfather bottomfishing in NWHI
TD. Environment Hawaii, 16(9) (March 2006): 12. Technology and management of bottomfish fisheries in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Gunatilaken HM, Leung PS. Marine Policy, 27(1) (2003): 59-67. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery, 1990-1996
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-97-09. [ pdf ] (2.25 MB)
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-97-06. [ pdf ] (86.3 MB)
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-95-07. [ pdf ] (1.87 MB)
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-94-07. [ pdf ] (2.10 MB)
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-93-14. [ pdf ] (1.49 MB)
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-92-12. [ pdf ] (1.41 MB)
SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-91-08. [ pdf ] (1.62 MB) Bottomfish fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1989
Kawamoto KE, Pooley SG. 1990. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-90-12.
[ pdf ] (1.27 MB) Linear programming model for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands bottomfish fishery
Kasaoka LD. 1989. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-89-2.
[ pdf ] (12.5 MB) A preliminary report on bottomfishing in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Moffitt RB. Proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (1980): 216-225.
PIFCS Library, GC57.2 H3192 no.80-04 Commercial bottom handline fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1959-77
Polovina JJ, Moffitt RB. 1980. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-80-11.
[ pdf ] (409 K) Survey of bottom fish resource in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Uchida RN, Ito BM, Uchiyama JH. 1979. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-79-20.
[ pdf ] (392 K)
Economic AspectsEconomic report on Hawaii's commercial bottom fishery, 1986
Pooley SG, Kawamoto KE. 1988. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-88-1.
[ pdf ] (1.39 MB) Demand considerations in fisheries management -- Hawaii's market for bottom fish
Pooley S. in Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management, Polovina JJ, Ralston S (eds.), (1987): 605-638.
PIFSC Library, QL638 .L9 T76 Economic determination of the optimal number of Northwestern Hawaiian Islands bottomfish vessels
Pooley SG. 1996. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-96-07.
[ pdf ] (1.50 MB) NWHI bottomfish fishery 1993 vessel activities, costs & economic returns
Hamilton M. 1994. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-94-01C.
[ pdf ] (3.05 MB) Economic analysis of bottom fishing vessels operating the NWHI, 1984-88
Pooley SG, Kawamoto KE. 1990. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-90-13.
[ pdf ] (1.50 MB)
Stock AssessmentHawaii’s bottomfish populations
Pooley S. Hawaii Fishing News, 32 (1) (Feb. 2006): 22-23. Bottomfish Stock Assessment Workshop (Jan. 13-16, 2004): Final Panel Report
Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (U.S.), 2004.
Summary of bottom trawl catches of juvenile opakapaka, Pristipomoides filamentosus (f. Lutjanidae) and associated fishes
Ellis DM, DeMartini, Moffitt RB. 1992. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-92-03.
[ pdf ] (2.53 MB) Biological assessment of the Hawaii bottom fish stocks and the Southeast Hancock Seamount armorhead stock, 1988
Somerton DA, Kikkawa BS, Everson AR. 1989. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-89-6.
[ pdf ] (4.37 MB) A biological assessment of Hawaiian bottom fish stocks, 1984-87
Ralston S, Kawamoto KE. 1988. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-88-8.
[ pdf ] (4.46 MB) A comparison of bottom longline and deep-sea handline for sampling bottom fishes in the Hawaiian archipelago
Shiota PM. 1987. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-87-5.
[ pdf ] (1.69 MB) Deep bottom fish surveys -- Hawaii (Report)
Okamoto H. State of Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources, 1982. Approaches to resource assessment for lobster, bottom fish, monk seal, and green turtle stocks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Polovina JJ, Ralston S, Wetherall JA. 1982. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-82-6.
[ pdf ] (495 K)
Ecology/Life HistoryUpdated weight-on-length relationships for pelagic fishes caught in the Central North Pacific Ocean and bottomfishes from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Uchiyama JH, Kazama TK. 2003. PIFSC Admin. Rep. H-03-01.
[ pdf ] (2.76 MB) Acoustic backscattering by deepwater fish measured in situ from a manned submersible
Benoit-Bird KJ, et al. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 50 (2) (2003): 221-229. Mapping submersible observations of deepwater snappers on 3-D multibeam images of a bottomfish habitat in Hawaii
Kelley CD. Oceans, 2001 MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition, 5-8 Nov. 2001, vol. 2: 876-879. Nursery habitat in relation to production of juvenile pink snapper, pristipomoides filamentosus, in the Hawaiian archipelago
Parrish FA, DeMartini EE, Ellis DM. Fishery Bulletin, 95(1) (1997): 137-148. Growth rates of four Hawaiian deep slope fishes: a comparison of methods for estimating age and growth from otolith microincrement widths
Williams HA, Lowe MK. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Ottawa, 54(1) (1997): 126-136. Barotrauma-associated regurgitation of food: implications for diet studies of Hawaiian pink snapper, pristipomoides filamentosus (family lutjanidae)
DeMartini EE, Parrish FA, Ellis DM. Fishery Bulletin, 94(2) (1996): 250-256. Habitat and life history of juvenile Hawaiian pink snapper, pristipomoides filamentosus
Moffitt RB, Parrish FA. Pacific Science, 50(4) (1996): 371-381. Deep-sea benthic fish of the Hawaiian archipelago, Cross Seamount, and Johnston Atoll
Chave EH, Mundy BC. Pacific Science, 48(4) (1994): 367-409. A recharacterization of age-length and growth relationship of Hawaiian snapper, Prisitipomoides filamentosus
DeMartini EE, Landgraf KC, Ralston S. 1994. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-199.
[ pdf ] ( 1.8 MB) An evaluation of Oocyte size in multiple regressions predicting gonad weight from body weight: a test using Hawaiian ehu, Etelis carbunculus
Lau BB, DeMartini EE. 1994. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-212.
[ pdf ] (1.8 MB) Feeding ecology of deepwater lutjanid snappers at Penguin Bank, Hawaii
Haight WR, Parrish JD, Hayes TA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 122(3) (1993): 328-347. Regional differences in otolith morphology of the deep slope red snapper, etelis carbunculus
Smith MK. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 49(4) (1992): 795-804. Estimates of age and growth of ehu etelis carbunculus in four regions of the pacific from density of daily increments in otoliths
Smith MK, Kostlan E. Fishery Bulletin, 89(3) (1991): 461-472. Maturation and reproduction in two Hawaiian eteline snappers, uku, aprion virescens, and onaga, etelis coruscans
Everson AR, Williams HA, Ito BM. Fishery Bulletin, 87(4) (1989): 877-888. Trophic relationships, density and habitat associations of deepwater snappers (Lutjanidae) from Penguin Bank, Hawaii
Haight WR. Thesis (MA) University of Hawaii, 1989.
PIFSC Library, QL638 .L9 H3 An analysis of bottom fish size variation at the Honolulu fish auction
Ralston S, Tagami DT, Shiota PM. 1986. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-86-10.
[ pdf ] (1.25 MB) Results of bottom fish research in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Uchida RN, Tagami DT, Uchiyama JH. 1982. SWFSC Admin. Rep. H-82-10.
(722 K) [ pdf ] Preliminary study on the spawning season of the opakapaka, pristipomoides filamentosus
Kikkawa BS. Proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Resource Investigations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (1980): 226-232.
PIFSC Library, GC57.2 .H3192 no.80-04
Interaction with Protected SpeciesFisheries group replies on monk seal issue.
Pacific Magazine, 25 (2) (March 1, 2000): 20. Evaluation of shark, dolphin, and monk seal interactions with Northwestern Hawaiian Island bottomfishing activity: a comparison of two time periods and an estimate of economic impacts
Kobayashi DR, Kawamoto KE. Fisheries Research, 23 (1) (May 1995): 11-22. A review of interactions between Hawaii's fisheries and protected species
Nitta ET, Henderson JR. Marine Fisheries Review, 55(2) (1993): 83-92.
Hawaii Newspaper Articles
Bottomfishing break proposed
(January 1998 - March 2006)
TenBruggencate J. Honolulu Advertiser 13 Mar. 2006. Council could alter rules for isle fishing: Agencies solicit feedback on plans to limit bottom-fishing
Leone D. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 16 Jan. 2006. Bottom-fish concern raised; regulating council seeks protective plan for ehu, opakapaka
TenBruggencate J. Honolulu Advertiser 16 Nov. 2005. Fishing ban in NW isles sought; catch-rate decrease cited by ocean conservation group
Waite D. Honolulu Advertiser 25 Oct. 2005. Ban sought on bottom fishing; but scientists, fishers say stocks healthy in Northwestern chain
TenBruggencate J. Honolulu Advertiser 27 Mar. 2005. Scientists plan monitoring of bottomfish population
Honolulu Star-Bulletin 27 Oct. 2001. Sonar might help with state fish census; identifying species by acoustic signature could help the state shape restricted areas
Altonn H. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 13 Aug. 2001. Fishery council meets to find alternatives to a bottomfishing ban
Kubota GT. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 17 Jun. 2001. Scientists devise sonar system to help save bottom fish
Altonn H. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 2 Jan. 2001. Future of bottom-fish markets uncertain; coral reef reserve may limit fishing
Wright W. Honolulu Advertiser 12 Dec. 2000. Bottomfish making a comeback, experts say; greater numbers create a win-win situation for fish & fishermen
Altonn H. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 29 Sept. 1999. Egg breakthrough big step in restoring bottomfish population; UH marine biologists say ehu have spawned in a hatchery for the first time
Altonn H. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 5 Aug. 1999. Fishery research goes deep; state aims to help bottomfish stock
Honolulu Advertiser 29 Oct. 1998. Nursery video may help save bottomfish
Honolulu Star-Bulletin 29 Oct. 1998. Bottom fishing restrictions aim to restore stock
Honolulu Advertiser 14 Mar. 1998. Going to the bottom to find the answers: UH researchers work to ensure that fish from ehu to onaga survive and thrive
Altonn H. Honolulu Star-Bulletin 28 Jan. 1998.
Further ResearchLC Subject Headings: Bottom Fishing; Deep-Sea Fishes; Groundfishes; Fisheries--Hawaii; Fisheries--Pacific Area
LC Call Numbers: QL638 .L9; SH319 .H3; SH455.6
Last updated March 05 2013