Hawaii Species Groups and Fisheries Categories

The species, families, and other groups used in the Hawaii DAR tables and graphs are defined in this section. The species names are affected by differences in usage of local common names, and are currently being updated for consistency across regions. There have been changes in management groupings and in some cases the taxonomy has been reviewed or revised, affecting the appropriateness of former groupings. For example, the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, was amended in 1992 to include tunas in the Pelagic Management Unit Species (PMUS) category. And species such as the dogtooth tuna have been recognized as not being true tunas (members of the Tribe Thunnini), although the word “tuna” is part of the common name.

These species tables are being revised to associate scientific names with English and local common names, and taxonomic groups will be clarified in this context. This is part of an ongoing effort to overhaul WPacFIN taxonomic references, to improve consistency and ease of interpretation for all our Pacific island partners.

The common names and corresponding scientific names are provided on this page. For the time being, the original species categorizations are used in the tables and graphs for comparative purposes.

Pelagic Management Unit Species (PMUS)

Billfishes/Unspecified (includes marlins, swordfish, sailfish and shortnose spearfish) Sharks (mainly Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, Carcharhinus spp.)
Black marlin (Istiompax indica) Shortnose spearfish (Tetrapturus angustirostris)
Blue marlin (Makaira mazara) Striped marlin (Kajikia audax)
Mahimahi (most Coryphaena hippurus, some C. equiselis) Swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri)

Bottomfish Management Unit Species (BMUS) 1

Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) 2 Lehi/Silverjaw (Aphareus rutilans)
Butaguchi/Pig-lipped ulua (Pseudocaranx dentex) Onaga/Red snapper (Etelis coruscans)
Ehu/Red snapper (Etelis carbunculus) Opakapaka/Pink snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus)
Gindai/Flower snapper (Pristipomoides zonatus) Ta’ape/Blue-lined snapper (Lutjanus kasmira)
Gunkin/Black ulua (Caranx lugubris) Uku/Gray snapper (Aprion virescens)
Hapu’upu’u/Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus quernus) White ulua/Giant trevally (Caranx ignoblis)
Kahala/Amberjack (Seriola dumerili) Yellow-tail kali (Pristipomoides auricilla)
Kalekale (Pristipomoides sieboldii)


Billfishes/Unspecified (described above in PMUS) Shortnose spearfish (Tetrapturus angustirostris)
Black marlin (Istiompax indica) Striped marlin (Kajikia audax)
Blue marlin (Makaira mazara) Swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus)


Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)
Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) Tunas (unspecified) 3
Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

Other Scombrids

Dogtooth tuna (Gymnosarda unicolor) 3

Fisheries Categories

Pelagic Fishes

Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) Pomfret (Taractichthys steindachneri, Eumegistus illustris, Bramma spp.)
Barracudas (various Spyraena spp.) Rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata)
Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) Rays (most common Aetobatus narinari)
Billfishes/Unspecified (described above in PMUS and Billfishes) Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus)
Black marlin (Istiompax indica) Sharks (described above in PMUS)
Blue marlin (Makaira mazara) Shortnose spearfish (Tetrapturus angustirostris)
Japanese mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)
Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) Striped marlin (Kajikia audax)
Mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus, C. equiselis) Swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
Moonfish/Opah (Lampris guttatus) Tunas/Unspecified 3
Oilfish (Ruvettus pretiosus, Thyrisitoides marleyi) Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri)
Pelagic fishes (unspecified) Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

Bottomfishes (and one Seamount Groundfish); “Deep-7 Bottomfish” are marked with an asterisk (*)

Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) 2 *Onaga/Red snapper (Etelis coruscans)
Blue trevally (Carangoides ferdau) *Opakapaka/Pink snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus)
Butaguchi/Pig-lipped ulua (Pseudocaranx dentex) Papa ulua (Caranx orthogrammus)
Dobe ulua (Uraspis helvola) Porgy/Mu/Bigeye emperor (Monotaxis grandoculis)
*Ehu/Red snapper (Etelis carbunculus) Roi/Blue spot grouper (Cephalopholis argus)
*Gindai/Flower snapper (Pristipomoides zonatus) Sasa ulua (Caranx sexfasciatus)
Golden kalekale (Erythrocles schlegelii, E. scintillans) Snake mackerel (various Gempylids)
Gunkin/Black ulua (Caranx lugubris) Snappers (unspecified) (various Lutjanids)
*Hapu’upu’u/Hawaiian grouper (Hyporthodus quernus) Ta’ape/Blue-lined snapper (Lutjanus kasmira)
Jacks/Unspecified (various Carangids) Uku/Gray snapper (Aprion virescens)
Kahala/Amberjack (Seriola dumerili) White ulua/Giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis)
*Kalekale (Pristipomoides seiboldii) Yellow-tail kali (Pristipomoides auricilla)
*Lehi/Silverjaw (Aphareus rutilans)

Reef Fishes

Aholehole/Hawaiian flagtail (Kuhlia sandvicensis) Reef fishes (multiple families, unspecified)
Bigeyes/glasseyes (Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, & various Priacanthus spp.) Reef jacks (Caranx melampygus, Gnathanodon speciosus, Alectis ciliaris, various other Caranx spp.)
Damselfishes (Abudefduf sordidus, A. vaigiensis, A. abdominalis) Rudderfishes (up to six Kyphosus spp.)
Filefishes (various Monacanthidae) Scorpionfishes (various Scorpaenidae)
Flounders (Bothus mancus, Bothus pantherinus) Squirrelfishes (Sargocentron spp., Neoniphon spp.)
Goatfishes (various Mullidae) Surgeonfishes/tangs (many Acanthuridae)
Gobies (various Gobiidae, including endemics) Tilapia (Oreochromis sp., introduced)
Hawkfish (Cirrhitus pinnulatus) Trumpetfishes (various Aulostomidae & Fistulariidae)
Parrotfishes (various Scaridae) Wrasses (diverse Labridae)
Pufferfishes (Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae)

Other Fishes, Algae & Invertebrates

Algae/Limu (mainly Asparagopsis taxiformis, various Gracilaria spp.) Needlefishes (various Belonidae)
Bigeye scad/Akule (Selar crumenophthalmus) Octopus (mainly Octopus cyanea)
Bonefishes (up to four Albula spp.) Opihi/Limpets (saltwater Cellana spp.)
Clams (various Bivalvia) ‘Opelu/Mackerel scad (Decapterus macarellus)
Crabs (Ranina ranina, various Brachyura) Shrimp, saltwater (Heterocarpus laevigatus, Heterocarpus ensifer)
Eels (mainly Gymnothorax spp.) Silversides (Iso hawaiiensis)
Flying fishes (various Exocoetidae) Slipper lobsters (mainly Scyllarides squammosus)
Herrings/sardines (Etrumeus sadina, various Clupeidae) Spiny lobsters (Panulirus marginatus, P. penicillatus)
Invertebrates/Other (black coral, various urchins, holothurians, gastropods, etc.) Squid (various Teuthoidea)
Leatherjacket (Scomberoides lysan) Ten pounder (Elops hawaiensis)
Milkfish (Chanos chanos) Threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis)
Mullets (mainly Mugil cephalus)  

1 Ulua is a general term for adult jacks and trevallies.
2 Armorhead are seamount groundfish, formerly managed along with BMUS.
3 This group includes species that comprise a very small portion of the tuna catch, including unidentified tunas. Because DAR has a single code for “miscellaneous tunas,” which is also used for dogtooth “tuna” (which are actually not tunas), this group is combined with “other scombrids” in some of the charts.

Last updated October 29 2014